Infobase Publishing. Clairvoyance has been a valued skill in divination, prophecy, and magic since ancient times. Pseudoscience and the Paranormal. Prometheus Books. Archived from the original on Jewish Encyclopedia. Retrieved 26 April Oxford: Oneworld Publications.
Dillstone; Christianity and Symbolism; London , p; referenced in 'The function of prophetic drama' in "The place is too small for us": the Israelite prophets in recent scholarship, by R. His actions and his teaching show who this new teacher is. This is he who taught the dissolution of marriage; who made laws for fasting; who named Pepuza and Tymion, small towns in Phrygia, Jerusalem, wishing to gather people to them from all directions; who appointed collectors of money; who contrived the receiving of gifts under the name of offerings; who provided salaries for those who preached his doctrine, that its teaching might prevail through gluttony.
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Retrieved 22 June Nayl al Rajaa' bisharh' Safinat an'najaa'. Dar Al Minhaj. Archived from the original on 13 August Frederic; Jacobs, Joseph. Critical Thinking for Psychology. Llewellyn Publications. The Observing self: Mysticism and psychotherapy. Boston: Beacon Press. Main street mystics: The origins of consciousness in the breakdown of the bicameral mind. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.
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Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. More importantly, the concrete practice of 'rituals and sacraments' fashioned Israel as a community intensely and definitely related to Yahweh. He rejects the general Christian conception of Old Testament theology derived from classical Protestantism with its profound aversion to cult, regarding cultic actions as archaic, magical and manipulative and thus finding value only in the Old Testament' s prophetic-ethical traditions Brueggemann In the ritual criticism of the prophets, Brueggemann points out that the cult does become a place of self-indulgence and satiation.
He maintains that the prophets were concerned with the gross abuses in the cult and would not have entertained the notion of abolishing the cult. The cult in these prophetic polemics should be a witness to and embodiment of the practice of communion with Yahweh - in his true character as sovereign and merciful. So he concludes that beyond its instrumental use as a necessary support for ethical intentions, the cult provides a place in which Israel might be in the presence of Yahweh, the Holy One, and thus no evidence that the prophets opposed public worship itself, as long as that worship focused on the peculiarity of Yahweh, the true God of Israel Brueggemann What is very special to Brueggemann's assessment is his identification of Israel' s cult as a direct witness, or testimony about one who is behaving in an ethical manner.
In his explanation on the pre-exilic prophets who are opposed to sacrifice, Barton notes that only Micah, speaks against the sin-offering in Mic. The other pre-exilic prophets seem more interested in sacrifices following feasts and other celebrations:.
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As Barton proceeds, he addresses the argument of scholars who deny the sustainability of the rituals in ancient Israel and who promote the idea of religion which has at its heart rather right social interaction than mere observance of ritual stipulation Barton Barton, however, does not explain the post-exilic prophetic statements in favour of the cult, which are far more than the statements against the cult from pre-exilic prophets.
While he also fails to address further the question of how far the prophets opposed the cultic rituals considered it improper for those who were engrossed in such activities which to them were sinful, such as oppression of the poor and perversion of justice, he notes that the majority of prophetic criticism of the cult does appear to concern the offering of sacrifices or the habit of fasting by those who have compromised themselves morally as in the case of Isa.
To him, "The way to please Yahweh, the prophets urge, or the way to be forgiven for one' s sins, is to engage in moral reform. Until that is done, practicing cultic observances compounds the insult being offered to God" Barton Ben Zvi notes that as one turns to books explicitly set in the Persian period, one finds again a case of prophetic diatribe against priests who failed to perform their duties Mal. On the contrary it reaffirms the importance of proper priests and the centrality of the temple. This reveals that the existence of a central temple requires the presence of faithful priests Ben Zvi Klawans presents an excellent analysis of discussions on the modern study of prophetic criticism of the cult and concludes that the opposition of the prophets to sacrifice reflects the social and economic messages of the prophets themselves.
In the prophetic criticism of cultic activities, Klawans advances that the prophets articulated their hostility to sacrifices and offerings, even though they did not intend to repudiate the legitimacy of cultic worship. He notes that the gifts presented for sacrifice by the people were unacceptable on the grounds that the offerings themselves the material gifts , had been stolen.
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He bases his argument on some prophetic statements concerning sacrifices that are in line with expressions of concern over the economic manipulation of the poor and needy, as seen in passages such as Amos cf. Amos , or Isa. That the priests could accept stolen material gifts even if they did not know it for ritual purposes implies that they presumed rightful ownership on the part of those bringing the offerings Klawans However, while Klawans does not offer reasons as to why the prophets of the eighth century would swiftly criticise temple ritual practices as well as explain the impact that individual prophetic criticism of sacrifice had on their respective audience, his perspective of the problem of rejection of sacrifices is a matter of urgent priority.
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In his work, Zevit notes that the classical prophets of ancient Israel were individuals concerned primarily with Israel' s ethical behaviour. Consequently, for them, adherence to the ethical stipulation of the covenant was deemed more important than the punctilious fulfilment of cultic minutiae. If this is true, as the consensus maintains, it is clear that they must have given some thought to priests, promoters of that which they felt impeded Israelites from fulfilling their ethical covenant obligations Zevit In this vein, it is reasonable to infer that some prophets must have felt animus toward priests, and their hostility should be imprinted in the preserved literature Zevit In her prophetic critique of the priority of the cult, Lafferty begins with a survey and critique of the cult in ancient Israel and establishes the place and significance of the cult particularly in pre-exilic Israel and Judah.
Lafferty attempts to answer the question as to what role ethical language plays in light of the prophets' rejection of ritual and then establishes that their background knowledge of wisdom ethics and of the cult enabled Amos and Isaiah to voice what Yahweh desires most of all as a matter of the people's attitude. These prophets' criticism of the cult does not judge the cultic actions, nor the goodness of the sacrifices offered, or the piety with which the prayers are offered.
As an alternative, the prophets charge the people to perform suitable, viable, merciful and ethical attitudes toward one another. It is such ethical behaviour that helps to establish whether Yahweh accepts the cult or declares it outrageous. As a book dominated by the religious questions of appropriate temple worship and priestly malpractices, Malachi no doubt carefully conducted his criticism of the rituals of the temple by directing attention to certain highly unacceptable and inexcusable misdemeanours, namely disrespect for Yahweh, worthless cultic rituals, unfaithfulness to marital vows that resulted in the malpractices of mixed marriages and divorce, and violation of the rights and needs of others, greed, injustice, and materialism.
In the light of the fact that the main focus of the priests is on cult and ritual activities cf. Barton ; Hrobon , the prophetic criticism of the rituals of the temple is considered to be a rhetorical characteristic that compels attention to significance of their ethical conduct rather than mere refutation.
It is in this regard that theological and ethical dimensions of Malachi's criticism of the rituals of the temple shall be considered.